Friday, March 13, 2020

The People vs. Eighth Amendment essays

The People vs. Eighth Amendment essays The People vs. Eighth Amendment The business of cruel and unusual punishment has long been juxtaposed with the discussion of the death penalty. Beginning with Adam and Eve and continuing to the present day, society has struggled with the notion of punishment. From Salem, Massachusetts, where 24 alleged witches hanged, to Starke, Florida, the home of the states infamous electric chair, Old Sparky, punishment has evolved from a humiliating, public spectacle to our current system of private, isolated incarceration. In the 1972 United States Supreme Court decision of Furman v. Georgia the relationship between public consensus and correlating jurisprudence is clear. In this case the Supreme Court reverses Georgias convicted of three Negro men to death. Capital punishment is struck down on the basis of violating the cruel and unusual punishment clause of the Eighth Amendment. The court concluded the penalty was arbitrary, lacking guidelines for juries and judges, and consisting of insufficient due process safeguards. Many justices in their concurring opinions justify their opinions by stating the penalty was morally unacceptable to the people of the United States. The decision maps out a repetitive trend between what the people think is right and how the court responds. Less than four years after Furman v. Georgia, the Supreme Court reverses the decision to do away with the death penalty and instead reinstates it, even broadening the boundaries in some aggravated rape cases (Furman). The juvenile death penalty is a very controversial issue and it is becoming increasingly unacceptable in most countries. In fact, the United States is one of the few countries left to sign the Convention on the Rights of the Child which abolishes the death penalty for juveniles. Likewise, the United States is one of only eight countries in the world to have executed a juvenile offender since 1990. In Octobe...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Maternal and Paternal Influence on The Development of Depressive Dissertation

Maternal and Paternal Influence on The Development of Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults of Divorce - Dissertation Example Divorce has been shown to have a profound effect on the members of the involved families, which are both short term and long term and can range from temporary behavior and adjustment problems to jeopardized lifelong relationships (Riggio, 2004 cited in Finley & Schwartz, 2007). The impact of a divorce is the greatest on the children of the divorced parents, who experience several problems later on in life including substance abuse, lower academic performance, ajustment problems and behavioral and emotional issues (D'Onofrio, et al., 2007). It is well documented that children belonging to disrupted families are at a higher risk of devleoping depressive symtpoms later in life as compared to those belonging to intact families (Gilman, Kawachi, Fitzmaurice, & Buka, 2003). There are several contirbuting factors which play a role in the development of depressive symptoms amongst young adults whose parents are divorced. Amongst these the age of the individual when the divorce occurred, the presence of parental conflict prior to the divorce, detrimental parenting practices, adverse socioeconomic conditions, the degree of parental involvement and nurturance, amongst others (Gilman, Kawachi, Fitzmaurice, & Buka, 2003; Finley & Schwartz, 2007; D'Onofrio, et al., 2007; Amato, 1994). Timing of parental divorce and the onset of depression amongst young adults: The age of the individual at the time when the parents underwent a divorce is an important factor in determining the onset of depressive symptoms in young adults. Gilman et. al (2003), in their study of risk factors for depression in early adulthood revealed that children whose parents underwent a divorce when they were aged between 0-7 years were at a 50% higher risk of depression than children belonging to intact families (Gilman, Kawachi, Fitzmaurice, & Buka, 2003). In contrast, another study which compared the onset of depressive symptoms amongst young adults whose parents got divorced between three different age g roups, viz. before-school age; latency period, i.e. 7-12 years and adolescent age group (7-12 years), found that depression rates were highest amongst boys who were aged between 7-12 years when their parents got divorced (Palosaari & Aro, 1994). However, no such association was found for girls. The role of parental involvement and nurturance: Divorce usually results in broken families, custodial conflilcts and adjustment problems all of which have detremental effects on the psychological well being of the offsprings. Following a divorce, one of the parents usually becomes non-residential, most oftenly, the father. An important outcome measure of several studies focusing on the impact of divorce is the desired level of paternal involvement and nurturance (Finley & Schwartz, 2007). Involvement has been defined as ‘extent to which parents participate in various aspects of their children’s lives (Finley, Mira, & Schwartz, 2008)’ while nurturance refers to ‘warm th and acceptance received from parents (Finley, Mira, & Schwartz, 2008)’. Till date, most studies conducted in this regard have focused on the levels of paternal involvement only since mostly it is the mother who gets the custody of the children and there is a paucity of data on the role of maternal involvement in the development of depresison amongst offsprings post-divorce.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Roles played by Canadian Women in World War II Research Paper

Roles played by Canadian Women in World War II - Research Paper Example During World War II the first stand of the Canadian women was at the home front. Canada went to war in September of 1939. Canadian women mobilized immediately and within a matter of months they set up dozens of unofficial women’s corps all over the country. These groups were organized affairs with members numbering in the thousands. Patriotic Canadian women from across Canada joined these organizations, such as â€Å"Women’s Volunteer Reserve Corps†, â€Å"Canadian Auxiliary Territorial Service†, â€Å"Women’s Voluntary Services Division† and â€Å"National War Services†. Women worked on their own time and expense, enrolling in military related courses such as map reading and Morse-code signaling (Dundas & Durflinger n.d.). The female organizations also organized the drive for recyclable material. Women were responsible for collecting fats, paper, glass, metals, rubber, rags and bone. These materials proved to be invaluable while makin g war supplies. Women also helped by saving old tubes of toothpaste, unusable socks, and other things that may seem useless but were very precious for the war effort. During the Second World War it became common for women and children to frequently visit the junk yards in search for disposed metal and batteries. Those days, Canadian women prided themselves on being able to redo old clothes to make new ones, a second cup of coffee was a luxury and women were working with whatever they had (Sharp 1965). Canadian women were not only â€Å"making it† at home. Despite there being a restriction on women fighting at the frontline, Canadian women found and excelled in jobs that did not involve fighting but were equally important. These women contributed to the war effort by partaking in a wide variety of occupations. Men were being sent off to war and this created severe labor shortages in all areas. To fulfill the vacancies, women aged between 20 years to 24 years were initially acc epted into â€Å"Selective Service† in 1942. These women worked in the service providing and manufacturing sectors. Also, many of these women took on the traditionally masculine jobs in shipyards and munitions industries. Up to 30% of the workforce in Canada’s aircraft industry in the Second World War era comprised of women (CBC News 2006). Many of these industrious Canadian women tell the story of workplace discrimination especially when it came to the remuneration package. Women were paid less than men and sometimes even the subordinate males earned more than their female bosses. The management of these facilities usually denied any request for an increase in pay by saying â€Å"that this was a woman's burden!" (Bruce 1985). Perhaps it was the collective effort of Canadian women at home combined with a severe dearth of manpower that encouraged the government to recruit women volunteers for full-time military service. The first call for women to sign up was very succ essful as more than 45000 women volunteered for many sections of the military nursing. Other than nursing, these women served as mechanics, parachute riggers and heavy mobile equipment drivers. During the Second World War, seventy-one women died working in the Canadian military (CBC News 2006). Canadian women did not let any adversity overcome their drive to fight for the right. Women who wanted to fly in the air force were politely turned down as it was not

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Joseph McCarthy Essay Example for Free

Joseph McCarthy Essay Joseph McCarthy was born on November 14, 1909 in Grand Chute, Wisconsin. At fourteen he stopped schooling only to return six years later. What normally took four years of high school, he finished in one year. The years 1930 to 1935 were spent in Marquette University where got his law degree. In 1939 he became a circuit court judge in Wisconsin. He was a Marines lieutenant in World War II. He ran for and lost a Senate seat in 1944. In 1946, he tried again and won this time as junior senator from Wisconsin. The first years were lackluster for Senator McCarthy. In 1949 he found issues to ride on like the US Cold War and anti-Communists sentiments. He claimed to have a Communists List including employees of the State Department. While that was in February of 1950, he named the alleged communists in government service for a whole of five years. Due to the strong anti-communist climate, even without evidence to support his accusations, his claims had damaged the careers and ruined the lives of his victims. Winning yet in another election in 1952 he had used his position as chairman of the Permanent Investigations Subcommittee to put more government officials and agencies under investigation. He spared no one from his onslaught including President Eisenhower. While hating the senator in private, the President ignored him in public. McCarthy’s downfall came in 1954 when the Army charged him of giving political favors to a consultant, a former army draftee. The Army-McCarthy hearings were held in his own subcommittee. He was found to be irresponsible as well as dishonest by the subcommittee in televised hearings. Unrepentant to the end, he was censured by Senate in 1954. He died at age 47 from liver ailment. The site elaborated on the rise and fall of a man. It helped me understand the complexities in the life of a man whose humble beginnings propelled him to seek out his dreams and the trappings of power brought him down and away from those dreams. Reference CNN Interactive. Com. Knowledge Bank:Profiles. Retrieved April 17, 2008, from http://www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/cold. war/kbank/profiles/mccarthy/

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

to become a member :: essays research papers

this is it I love you and am sending you a letter tomorrow.I want you to know I am sorry.Please, listen I will give you my address but DO NOT write b/c of parents. I will also give you my # but I will call you.I am sorry.Thank you though for believing in me and trusting me.Your an angel. I am not completely over last nights disagreement and don't want to cause any problems over it. I know what I put you through last night and I understand where you are coming from on the issue but I don't think you know or understand where I stand and what I percieve. I have been in your position several times and know how angry you get and how frusterating it is. But before I always thought like you did, until I got into the opposite position and trust me, it is miserable. Either way I go about it, I am still wrong. It is a long and complicated thing to get over because I can't express my feelings and I can't hold them back either. It will drive me insane if I do and if I don't. What will become of it, i don't know, but I won't stop loving you regardless. I do believe in fate and have for a long time, and whatever you have been thinking about I would like to hear it. I won't mention the arguement again and hopefully I will get over it and we can move on. I have a hair apointment at 11:00 and my wax apointment at 1:00 but hopefully I will be able to send you one more email before tonight. I love you dave honestly but at the moment I am feeling really down and discouraged. Please don'ttake my comments wrong and try to understand. I am sorry and I did overreact but I know you think I appologized for my thoughts and perceptions and that I didn't do. I love you too. I justwant to drop the whole arguement and deal with it by myself. I can work through it and then we can be back to normal. I am really scared of losing you too. But I don't know what to do, or how to do it, and especially not how to cope alone. I will work it out for you, for us, though. I love you and don't forget that.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Purpose of The Daily News

What is the purpose of the daily news?Many will answer and say that the news is there to inform the public, but is that really their purpose. Most of the news that is shown on television is shown in less than two to three-minute segments; a person cannot become informed on certain topics in that little amount of time. The three-minute segments of news that are displayed on television only give the viewer a watered down version of information from a biased point of view. When a person watches the news one can see that many of images shown are negative towards a certain subject. The viewer may not see it but the shocking or exciting images being displayed constantly on the daily news must have some greater purpose than to inform the viewer. The greater purpose is to provoke public interest and excitement; this provocation of public interest an excitement through the use of exciting or shocking images, stories, and language is called news sensationalism. Many people think they are being informed by the news but what they do not realize is that it is not always enlightening, as it should be, but it is instead very captivating. Through the use of sensationalism the news that is displayed on television everyday impacts and influences a person by showing them negative images, using â€Å"buzz† words, providing one-sided information, and by restricting boundaries of information.What types of images are displayed daily on the news?Tune into the news and the first image that are shown are images on something negative like murder, war, violence, and death. News stations display these types of negative images in order to acquire your attention. Negative images on the news grab people's attention because they rarely happen in a person's life. People are attracted to negative images of violence and death because they find them fascinating. These negative images are fascinating because many people have not experienced them first hand; there exists less violence and death now than in any other time in human history. Humans are creatures who have evolved over time from a civilization of violence and death to one that has become more sophisticated and educated. Therefore, when images of violence and death are displayed on television they show people a part of the human past that was more violent. This shows that humans have some type wickedness inside them because if they did not humans would not sit in front of their television watching news on people's death. Now when horrible events occur in this world people can see it on the news, therefore, one can say that human beings have become desensitized to negative images because they are being shown constantly in a continual loop. Consequently, the negative images of violence and death may be showed on the news in order to remind humans of their violent past and to show that these events do occur in real life. In addition, the negative images help people manage with their current situations by showing them that their lives are not so bad and could be much worse. The continual loop of negative images reflects that society likes the negative because it reminds humans of their fascination for violence and helps people cope with their current situations. The news media use â€Å"buzz† words constantly in their news and headlines to capture a viewer's attention in order to instill fear and make profit. â€Å"Buzz† words, according to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, are type of words or phrases that usually sound important or technical and are used primarily to impress people without knowledge in a particular subject (â€Å"buzzword†). First off when a news station tries to grab the viewers attention they usually use the headline â€Å"We just got breaking news,† this phrase immediately captures a person's attention because one does not know what to expect. After that phrase is said some type of â€Å"buzz† word usually follows it immediately because people will not know about the subject since it is breaking news. For example, when 9/11 occurred it was breaking news and president Bush followed right after the attack with a small speech. In that speech president Bush used the â€Å"buzz† words terrorism, bombing, and extremism because they sounded technical to the situation. President Bush's words captured the people's attention and impressed them so much that they were instilled with fear and eventually lead to the war in Iraq. Moreover, by obtaining people's attention through the use of â€Å"buzz† words news stations draw more views, which in turn allows them to get higher ratings and make profit. News stations make profit by selling airtime to commercials, so a news station with a lot of viewers will make a great quantity of money. Therefore, â€Å"buzz† words are used more now than ever before because using them allows news stations to instill fear and gather more viewers which amounts to more profit. When people watch the news they tend to trust the information they are getting because many people are lazy to go searching for information on their own, as a result the news seems real and authentic but in reality the news merely provides biased information. The news provides one-sided information because it is in the news stations best interest to do so; being biased allows news stations to attract specific types of viewers. By attracting a specific type of viewer it allows news stations to push a distinct viewpoint. For example, Fox news is a conservative media outlet that attracts conservatives, while MSNBC is liberal media outlet that attracts liberals. They each have their different point of view but they cater to people who have the same view as them. Therefore, when people watch the news on one of these networks they shall only be informed on one side of the argument. This also shows something about the viewers; it shows that the viewers only watch specific news networks in order to reinforce their side of the argument. Every human has their own one-sided view when it comes to specific subjects, so in order to prove that their view is right to individuals they have to reinforce their biased view in some way and that way is through the news (Eveland). For example, when a person thinks of a Muslim they usually think of a person who is a terrorist and from the Middle East. Their belief on what a Muslim person is was reinforced by the news coverage on 9/11. This gave many people biased views on what type of people are terrorists; the news coverage gave Americans the false perception that all Muslim people must be terrorists that hail from the Middle East. Therefore, most of the biased views that come from the news can be attributed to the viewer's self-centered ideology that they have to be right because the news intention is only to give viewers what they want to hear. In essence, the daily news that is shown is always biased because different media outlets want to attract and give specific viewers what they want.   News stations have created restricted boundaries so that people don't searching for information outside of them.One must first ask what are those restricted boundaries?These restricted boundaries are the information that is not shown to the public. National governments hold many secrets and if they were to be exposed by the news to the citizens many of them would feel betrayed. If people could not trust their government they would most likely rebel so in order to keep their trust the government works behind the scenes controlling what is shown on the news. Many governments do this by regulating the media through the use of money by either fining the news companies or allowing them to be tax exempt. Therefore the news can be used to keep people under control and manipulate them. For example, the media coverage on the 9/11 terrorist attacks was used to manipulate American citizens to go to war with Iraq even though Iraq had nothing do with it. President Bush's administration manipulated â€Å"evidence† on the news so that he could get Americans citizens to agree with him to invade Iraq (Hutchinson). Everyone in America at that time was so focused on revenge that no one dared question the information that was provided on the news. At that time it was a restricted boundary to question whether the war in Iraq was just; everyone just assumed it was justifiable after what had happened. It was not until many years later that Americans went outside the restricted boundary to uncover the truth about why they had invaded Iraq. The news was and continues to be manipulated so that people never search for information outside of restricted boundaries because what they might find may not be what they were shown. The news original intention was to inform the public and provide accurate information. It has changed drastically through the use of news sensationalism. Negative images are now shown so constantly in a continual loop that humans have become attracted to them, which in turn, has helped people cope with their current living situations. â€Å"Buzz† words have also gone on the rise because they have enticed more viewers, which have helped news stations instill fear into people and make more profit. Information on the news has now become biased in order to cater to certain types of people because viewers now only want to reinforce that they are right and justified in their opinions. Restricted boundaries have also been created by the news so that viewers do not go searching for information outside of them because many people may find out that they have been manipulated in some way by the news that was presented to them. To sum it up, the daily news that is presented now is not what it used to be; it is now a tool used by media outlets to distort the truth.

Monday, January 6, 2020

How Shakespeare Creates Humour in Act 5 Scene 1 Essay

How does Shakespeare create humour in act 5 scene1 in the play a ‘Midsummer Nights Dream’? William Shakespeare is the author of the comedy play ‘A Midsummer Nights Dream’. This play was written around 1595. In this essay I will be answering the question how does Shakespeare creates humour in act 5 scene 1. There are many reasons as to how the play was humorous; one of the main reasons was the staging you would have the real audience, the court on the stage and on the original stage you would have the mechanicals perform. The other reasons on how Shakespeare creates humour are with the characters (fairies, court and mechanicals) and the repetitive incorrect use of language and errors. An example of this could be when in act 5 scene 1†¦show more content†¦That you should here repent you’. After his silly prologue the court start to make comments about his punctuation he puts the full stops in the wrong places Hipployta says that he is like a child on a recorder act 5 scene 1 lines 122-123. All of this adds to the humour. The themes of this play a re mostly to do with love and magic however the play as a whole is a comedy. The magic scene is the scene that brings the whole play together. Without it the lovers would not be called lovers and there wouldn’t be a marriage. Before puck put the love potion on them Lysander was in love with Hermia but her dad wanted her to marry Demetrius; and Helena was in love with Demetrius on the other hand Demetrius was not in love with either of them. Puck sorted things out by putting a love potion on Demetrius so that he falls in love with Helena. The funny part about it all is when they are all confused when they awake from what they think is a dream which is a dramatic irony because we know it wasn’t a dream but in fact a reality. There are two settings in the play; one setting is the magical fairy world where all the fairies come at night and disappear in the day. The other setting is reality the normal world. All four loversShow MoreRelatedScene Analysis in A Midsummer Night s Dream851 Words   |  4 Pageswhat I will be focusing on how Shakespeare creates humour in act 5 scene 1. So how does he create humour? There are many ways as to how Shakespeare creates humour; one of the main reasons is through the characters. There are there sets of characters the fairies, court and the mechanicals in this case it’s the mechanicals. The mechanicals are normal workers that want to become actors. They are uneducated, you can tell this because Bottom (mechanical) says in act 4 scene 2 line 20 â€Å"Where are theseRead MoreSituational Humor In The Merchant Of Venice994 Words   |  4 PagesVenice – Assessment Task 2 How relevant are the comedic conventions in engaging a modern audience? 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This is a scene made of intense confrontation resulting in the death of influential characters, Read MoreEssay on How Male Characters are Portrayed in The Taming of the Shrew1040 Words   |  5 PagesHow Male Characters are Portrayed in The Taming of the Shrew Male characters in the â€Å"Taming of the Shrew† play a significant role in the play as women in fact without the male characters one can say that the male characters wouldn’t react in the manner they do. The characters I have selected are Tranio, Hortensio, Lucentio and Petruchio because I feel they play more significant roles in the play then any of the other male characters due to the fact that three of themRead MoreThe Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare Essay examples2198 Words   |  9 PagesMerchant of Venice by William Shakespeare The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare was written between 1594-1596.It is classified as a comedy; it is also a work of good triumphs over evil, but serious themes are examined and some issues remain unresolved. In the play Shakespeare has woven together plots from different books. Shakespeare gets the bond story and theRead More Drama in Act 1 Scene 5 and Act 3 Scene 1 of William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet4860 Words   |  20 PagesDrama in Act 1 Scene 5 and Act 3 Scene 1 of William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet is centred around three main themes. The love between Romeo and Juliet combined with the hatred between their families. Romeo and Juliet is also about fate and destiny. In the prologue Romeo and Juliet are referred to as a pair of star-crossed lovers. These themes are all closely linked and have consequences which eventually result in Romeo and Juliets deaths. Read MoreTwelfth Night : Gender And Sexuality2101 Words   |  9 Pagesestablishes ideas on gender roles, sexuality and cross-dressing. These factors indeed undermine the expectations of male and female behaviour, and in turn further the play s theme of madness which has a comedic effect on the audience due to the shock humour it provides. Cross-dressing in ‘Twelfth Night’ makes Viola s gender identity ambiguous, Viola is both a man and a woman, possessing both masculinity and femininity, therefore cross-dressing helps to break down renaissance gender stereotypes and